Free radical sensors for TBR 4100 and TBR 1025 - WPI

Free radical sensors for TBR 4100 and TBR 1025 - WPI

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a versatile mediator of physiological processes. Carbon monoxide (CO) formed by internal mechanisms (endogenous) is measured in a variety of ways, but standard measurement methods are of limited utility in most biological systems.  WPI's ingenious ISO-COP-2 CO sensor measures CO in vivo or in vitro in real time!

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Free radical sensors for TBR 4100 and TBR 1025 - WPI

ISO-COP-2 Carbon Monoxide Sensor - 2mm

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a versatile mediator of physiological processes. Carbon monoxide (CO) formed by internal mechanisms (endogenous) is measured in a variety of ways, but standard measurement methods are of limited utility in most biological systems.  WPI's ingenious ISO-COP-2 CO sensor measures CO in vivo or in vitro in real time!

This CO sensor is comprised of a 2.0mm stainless steel body with a replaceable membrane-covered sleeve. The sleeve is filled with electrolyte. It is an amperometric sensor designed for use in cell culture and similar applications.

In principle, CO diffuses through the gas-permeable membrane and is then oxidized to CO2 on the working electrode of the sensor. This oxidation  creates a current with a magnitude directly related to the concentration of CO in solution.

It is designed for use with WPI's TRB4100 (4-Channel) or TBR1025 (1-Channel)  Free Radical Analyzers.

NOTE: The 2mm biosensors come with a spare membrane sleeve, 1cc syringe, an MF28G67 MicroFil needle and 10mL of filling solution.

  • For use with Apollo1000, Apollo4000, TBR4100 and TBR1025
  • Response Time: <10 sec
  • Lowest Detection Limit: ~10nM
  • Sensitivity: ~0.5pA/nM
  • Application: Cell Cultures
  • Package of 1

IGS100 Implantable Glucose Sensor

  • Measure glucose in vivo or in vitro over long term
  • Implantable sensor for long term studies
  • Incorporated reference electrode
  • For use with Apollo1000, Apollo4000, TBR4100 and TBR1025
  • Requires 91580 Microsensor Adapter
  • Package of 2

Benefits

  • Implantable microsensor
  • Biocompatible
  • Long term monitoring

Applications

  • In vivo long term measurement of glucose in animals or tissues
  • Measuring glucose in vivo over the long term is challenging and difficult. Previous measurement systems were limited to acute studies or a few days at best. WPI introduces a new kind of implantable glucose sensor based on a patented technology. This sensor provides a tool for researchers to directly detect glucose in chronic studies in vitro or in vivo. The sensor is fully compatible with WPI’s TBR systems.

Temperature Sensor - ISO-TEMP-2

  • 2mm platinum RTD electrode
  • Requires microsensor adapter cable #91580
  • Package of 1

This temperature sensor is based on a 2.0 mm tip diameter high quality miniature platinum RTD (Resistance Temperature Detector) electrode. This design has been shown to provide greater accuracy, stability and interchangeability during temperature measurements than traditional thermistor and thermocouple sensors.

Flexible Hydrogen Sulfide Sensor ISO-H2S-100-CXX

  • Low detection limit sensors to record in vitro
  • Hight selectivity and sensitivity to hydrogen sulfide with fast response time
  • Broad linearity
  • For use with Apollo1000, Apollo4000, TBR4100 and TBR1025
  • Requires cable 91580 (sold separate)
  • Package of 2

Benefits

  • A dry sensor that works like a 2mm wet sensor
  • Response Time: ~5 s
  • Detection Limit: < 5 nM
  • Sensitivity: 1-4 pA/nM

Applications

  • Measure biological hydrogen sulfide in vivo or in vitro in tissues or biological media
  • Measure hydrogen sulfide released from drugs
  • Cell culture, cell suspensions, arteries, in vivo applications

About Hydrogen Sulfide

Although hydrogen sulfide is generally thought of in terms of a poisonous gas, it is endogenously produced in many mammalian tissues. It has been detected in micromolar amounts in blood and brain tissue. Hydrogen sulfide is reported as having a broad range of biological functions and although its potential to participate in cell signaling is clear, this biological role is not well understood. Hydrogen sulfide is strongly anagolous to nitric oxide because they share several physical and metabolic properties.

Hydrogen sulfide and oxygen

Like nitric oxide, hydrogen sulfide is a potent vascular signal that can mediate vasoconstriction or vasorelaxation depending on the oxygen level and tissue. In the rat aorta, hydrogen sulfide concentrations that mediate rapid constriction at oxygen level will cause rapid relaxation at lower oxygen levels.

Sensor details

The ISO-H2S-100 is a hydrogen sulfide sensor with a 100 µm diameter tip. It is designed like the dry microsensors, however, it works like a traditional 2 mm sensor. The sensor can be ordered in a variety of lengths from 2–5 mm. It incorporates WPI’s proprietary combination electrode technology in which the hydrogen sulfide-sensing element and separate reference electrode are encased within a single shielded sensor design.

The ISO-H2S-100 offers several advantages:

  • Requires no sleeves or filling solutions
  • Durable for long-term use, because of its platinum wire construction
  • Rapid response time
  • Broad linear range (Range is based on the length of the sensor tip)

Hydrogen Peroxide Microsensors

Type 

  • Hypodermic (ISO-HPO-100H)
  • Straight (ISO-HPO-100)

 

  • Direct quantitative measurements of hydrogen peroxide in biological samples
  • Incorporated reference electrode
  • Non-breakable integrated hydrogen peroxide sensor with tip dimension of 100 µm
  • For use with Apollo1000, Apollo4000, TBR4100 and TBR1025
  • Requires cable 91580 (sold separate)
  • Package of 3

Benefits

  • Response Time: < 5 s (90%)
  • Detection Limit: 1 nM - 1 mM
  • Drift: < 1.0 pA/min. (< 2 pA/min. for the L-Shaped)
  • Sensitivity: 1 pA/nM 

Applications

  • Tissue/Microvessels detection of HPO
  • L-Shaped for tissue bath studies
  • Hypodermic for easy insertion into tissue

Despite the recognized importance of this oxidant in biology, real-time measurements at low concentration have been difficult. The hydrogen peroxide sensors developed by WPI are designed to compliment existing high sensitivity fluorescent approaches with direct quantitative measurement in biological samples in the low nM range.

The ISO-HPO-2 is a 2.0 mm stainless steel sensor, with replaceable membrane sleeves (600012) and an internal refillable electrolyte (100042). It is designed for use in cell cultures and similar applications.

The ISO-HPO-100 is a 100 µm tip diameter hydrogen peroxide micro sensor designed for use in tissues and similar applications. The design is based on a platinum wire sensing electrode coated with a proprietary membrane to enhanceH2O2 detection.

These sensors incorporate WPI’s proprietary combination electrode technology whereby the hydrogen peroxide sensing element and separate reference electrode are encased within a single Faraday-shielded probe design. This design has been shown to enhance performance during measurements and minimizes overall sensor size.

Our hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sensors work with the TBR4100 and TBR1025 free radical analyzers.

Hydrogen peroxide in biological systems

Hydrogen Peroxide is produced in biological systems by controlled pathways at low concentrations that impact on cell signaling. At higher concentrations inflammatory cells produce local intense amounts of this oxidant to kill pathogens. In the progress of human disease, uncontrolled formation of hydrogen peroxide from the mitochondrial respiratory chain and enzymes, such as xanthine oxidase, can occur (Prof. Victor Darley-Usmar, Univ. of Alabama, personal communication). 

Hydrogen peroxide sensor in a hypodermic sheath

The ISO-HPO-100H is enclosed in a hypodermic needle. The image below shows the needle tip and enclosed sensor as viewed through a microscope.

L-shaped hydrogen peroxide sensor

The ISO-HPO-100-L is a unique L-shaped nitric oxide sensor designed specifically for use in tissue bath studies and similar applications (e.g., see WPI's MYOBATH). The shape of the sensor has been engineered to facilitate placement of the electrode within the lumen of the tissue

Hydrogen Peroxide Macro Sensor ISO-HPO-2

  • Direct quantitative measurements of hydrogen peroxide in biological samples
  • Gas permeable polymer membrane sleeve blocks liquids, ions and particulate matter
  • Incorporated reference electrode
  • For use with Apollo1000, Apollo4000, TBR4100 and TBR1025
  • Package of 1

Benefits

Response Time: < 5 s (90%)
Detection Limit: < 100 nM to 100 mM
Drift: < 0.2 pA/min
Sensitivity: 8 pA/μM

Applications

  • Cell Cultures

NOTE: The 2mm biosensors come with a spare membrane sleeve, 1 cc syringe, an MF28G67 MicroFil needle and 10 mL of filling solution.

Despite the recognized importance of this oxidant in biology, real-time measurements at low concentration have been difficult. The hydrogen peroxide sensors developed by WPI are designed to compliment existing high sensitivity fluorescent approaches with direct quantitative measurement in biological samples in the low nM range.

The ISO-HPO-2 is a 2.0 mm stainless steel sensor, with replaceable membrane sleeves (600012) and an internal refillable electrolyte (100042). It is designed for use in cell cultures and similar applications.

The ISO-HPO-100 is a 100 µm tip diameter hydrogen peroxide micro sensor designed for use in tissues and similar applications. The design is based on a platinum wire sensing electrode coated with a proprietary membrane to enhanceH2O2 detection.

These sensors incorporate WPI’s proprietary combination electrode technology whereby the hydrogen peroxide sensing element and separate reference electrode are encased within a single Faraday-shielded probe design. This design has been shown to enhance performance during measurements and minimizes overall sensor size.

Our hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sensors work with the TBR4100 and TBR1025 free radical analyzers.

Hydrogen peroxide in biological systems

Hydrogen Peroxide is produced in biological systems by controlled pathways at low concentrations that impact on cell signaling. At higher concentrations inflammatory cells produce local intense amounts of this oxidant to kill pathogens. In the progress of human disease, uncontrolled formation of hydrogen peroxide from the mitochondrial respiratory chain and enzymes, such as xanthine oxidase, can occur (Prof. Victor Darley-Usmar, Univ. of Alabama, personal communication). 

Flexible Hydrogen Sulfide Sensor

  • Low detection limit sensors to record in vitro
  • Hight selectivity and sensitivity to hydrogen sulfide with fast response time
  • Broad linearity
  • For use with Apollo1000, Apollo4000, TBR4100 and TBR1025
  • Requires cable 91580 (sold separate)
  • Package of 2

Benefits

  • A dry sensor that works like a 2mm wet sensor
  • Response Time: ~5 s
  • Detection Limit: < 5 nM
  • Sensitivity: 1-4 pA/nM

Applications

  • Measure biological hydrogen sulfide in vivo or in vitro in tissues or biological media
  • Measure hydrogen sulfide released from drugs
  • Cell culture, cell suspensions, arteries, in vivo applications

About Hydrogen Sulfide

Although hydrogen sulfide is generally thought of in terms of a poisonous gas, it is endogenously produced in many mammalian tissues. It has been detected in micromolar amounts in blood and brain tissue. Hydrogen sulfide is reported as having a broad range of biological functions and although its potential to participate in cell signaling is clear, this biological role is not well understood. Hydrogen sulfide is strongly anagolous to nitric oxide because they share several physical and metabolic properties.

Hydrogen sulfide and oxygen

Like nitric oxide, hydrogen sulfide is a potent vascular signal that can mediate vasoconstriction or vasorelaxation depending on the oxygen level and tissue. In the rat aorta, hydrogen sulfide concentrations that mediate rapid constriction at oxygen level will cause rapid relaxation at lower oxygen levels.

Sensor details

The ISO-H2S-100 is a hydrogen sulfide sensor with a 100 µm diameter tip. It is designed like the dry microsensors, however, it works like a traditional 2 mm sensor. The sensor can be ordered in a variety of lengths from 2–5 mm. It incorporates WPI’s proprietary combination electrode technology in which the hydrogen sulfide-sensing element and separate reference electrode are encased within a single shielded sensor design.

The ISO-H2S-100 offers several advantages:

  • Requires no sleeves or filling solutions
  • Durable for long-term use, because of its platinum wire construction
  • Rapid response time
  • Broad linear range (Range is based on the length of the sensor tip)

ISO-NOPF500 Nitric Oxide Sensor - 500um

  • UA dry carbon fiber sensor that works like a 2mm wet sensor
  • Excellent selectivity to NO
  • Rapid response time: < 10 s
  • Highly sensitive> 20 pA/nM
  • For use with Apollo1000, Apollo4000, TBR4100 and TBR1025
  • Requires cable 91580 (sold separate)
  • Use like an ISO-NOP without sleeves and filling solution
  • Package of 2

Benefits

  • Flexible sensor, nearly unbreakable

Applications

  • In vivo nitric oxide measurement

The ISO-NOPF500 is a nitric oxide sensor designed like the dry, carbon fiber ISO-NOPF sensors, however, it works like a traditional ISO-NOP2mm sensor. The sensor can be ordered in a variety of lengths from 5-10mm. It incorporates WPI's propiretary combination electrode technology in which the nitric oxide sensing element and separate reference electrode are encased within a single sheilded sensor design. 

The ISO-NOP was the original nitric oxide sensor, ideal for cell cultures, cell suspensions and many other applications. The new ISO-NOPF500can be used in the same way, but offers several advantages:

Requires no sleeves or filling solutions
Flexible and durable, like other ISO-NOPF sensors
High sensitivity for a rapid response time–ten times more sensitive than the ISO-NOP
Can be used in acidic conditions
Longer sensor tip than the ISO-NOP
Bigger linear range than the ISO-NOP (range is based on the length of the sensor tip)
Calibration with either the SNAP or Nitrite method

NOTE: When ordering custom lengths, use the part number ISO-NOPF500-CXX and replace the XX with the desired length. For example, if you want a 10mm flexible sensor tip, the part number should be ISO-NOPF500-C10. This sensor can be ordered in the following custom lengths: 5mm, 6mm, 7mm, 8mm, 9mm or 10mm. 

 

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Fast, reliable, real-time detection – measure redox-reactive species
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Real-time detection and measurement of a variety of redox-reactive species is fast and easy using the electrochemical (amperometric) detection principle employed in the  TBR4100. This optically isolated four-channel free radical analyzer has ultra low noise and independently operated channels.