Startle / Fear potentiated Startle

Startle response system

Startle / Fear potentiated Startle


The fully computerized TSE Startle Response/PPI test system is designed for accurate and reliable determination of the startle reflex and investigation of sensorimotor gating in rodents.

Add to quote request
  • Description
  • Download
  • Publications
  • References

Startle / Fear potentiated Startle

The fully computerized TSE Startle Response/PPI test system is designed for accurate and reliable determination of the startle reflex and investigation of sensorimotor gating in rodents. In „PPI” (pre-pulse inhibition) experiments a weak prepulse is followed by the startle stimulus inducing a reduced startle response.

Animals are restrained in small cages restricting major movements and placed on species-specific measuring platforms with integrated high-precision sensors in sound-attenuating isolated cabinets. The flexible software package allows the creation of user-defined protocols including complex „pre-pulse” designs. Reaction time, i.e. response latency, and startle amplitude for each trial are presented in results tables. Graphs allow the performance of several animals to be compared.

Key features

  • pair of high-performance loudspeakers for sine sound and noise generation with up to 130dB startle intensity
  • acoustic pre-pulse and startle stimulus generation with computer-controlled amplitude and frequency setting
  • optional air puff components for tactile startle experiments
  • mild electric shock applicable
  • suitable for fear-potentiated and light-enhanced startle trials



Impaired Cognition after Stimulation of P2Y1 Receptors in the Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex.

Koch H, Bespalov A, Drescher K, Franke H, Krügel U.
Neuropsychopharmacology 2015; 40:305-14



Galantamine slows down plaque formation and behavioral decline in the 5XFAD mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease.

Bhattacharya S, Haertel C, Maelicke A, Montag D
PLoS One 2014; 9(2): e89454

Chronic and acute intranasal oxytocin produce divergent social effects in mice.

Huang H, Michetti C, Busnelli M, Managò F, Sannino S, Scheggia D, Giancardo L, Sona D,  Murino V, Chini B, Scattoni ML, Papaleo F.
Neuropsychopharmacology 2014; 39(4):1102-14

Automated phenotyping and advanced data mining exemplified in rats transgenic for Huntington's disease.

Urbach YK, Raber KA, Canneva F, Plank AC, Andreasson T, Ponten H, Kullingsjö J, Nguyen HP, Riess O, von Hörsten S.
J Neurosci Methods 2014; 234:38-53




Glutaminyl cyclase-mediated toxicity of pyroglutamate-beta amyloid induces striatal neurodegeneration.

Becker A, Kohlmann S, Alexandru A, Jagla W, Canneva F, Bäuscher C, Cynis H, Sedlmeier R, Graubner S, Schilling S, Demuth HU, von Hörsten S.
BMC Neurosci 2013; 14(1):108

A single gene defect causing claustrophobia.

El-Kordi A, Käsner A, Grube S, Klugmann M, Begemann M, Sperling S, Hammerschmidt K, Hammer C, Stepniak B, Patzig J, de Monasterio-Schrader P,Strenzke N, Flügge G, Werner HB, Pawlak R, Nave KA, Ehrenreich H.
Transl Psychiatry 2013; 3:e254

Development of an autism severity score for mice using Nlgn4 null mutants as a construct-valid model of heritable monogenic autism.

El-Kordi A, Winkler D, Hammerschmidt K, Kästner A, Krueger D, Ronnenberg A, Ritter C, Jatho J, Radyushkin K, Bourgeron T, Fischer J, Brose N, Ehrenreich H.
Behav Brain Res 2013; 251:41-9



Endogenous ciliary neurotrophic factor modulates anxiety and depressive-like behavior.

Peruga I, Hartwig S, Merkler D, Thöne J, Hovemann B, Juckel G, Gold R, Linker RA.
Behav Brain Res 2012; 229(2):325-33



Selective hippocampal neurodegeneration in transgenic mice expressing small amounts of truncated Abeta is induced by pyroglutamate-Abeta formation.

Alexandru A, Jagla W, Graubner S, Becker A, Bäuscher C, Kohlmann S, Sedlmeier R, Raber KA, Cynis H, Rönicke R, Reymann KG, Petrasch-Parwez E, Hartlage-Rübsamen M, Waniek A, Rossner S, Schilling S, Osmand AP, Demuth HU, von Hörsten S.
J Neurosci 2011; 31(36):12790-801

Differential effects of maternal immune activation and juvenile stress on anxiety-like behaviour and physiology in adult rats: no evidence for the „double-hit hypothesis”

Yee N, Ribic A, de Roo CC, Fuchs E
BBR 2011; 224:180-188
Startle Response



Early onset of aging-like changes is restricted to cognitive abilities and skin structure in Cnr (-/-) mice

Bilkei-Gorzo A, Drews E, Albayram Ö, Piyanova A, Gaffal E, Tueting T, Michel K, Mauer D, Maier W, Zimmer A
Neurobiol Aging 2010; :1-12
ActiMot, Startle Response

Biochemical and behavioral effects of long-term citalopram administration and discontinuation in rats: role of serotonin synthesis

Bosker FJ, Tanke MAC, Jongsma ME, Cremers TIFH, Jagtman E, Pietersen CY, van der Hart MGC, Gladkevich AV, Kema IP, Westerink BHC, Korf J, den Boer JA
Neurochem Int 2010; :
Startle Response

A triple urocortin knockout mouse model reveals an essential role for urocortins in stress recovery.

Neufeld-Cohen A, Tsoory MM, Evans AK, Getselter D, Gil S, Lowry CA, Vale WW, Chen A.
PNAS 2010; 104 (44):19020-19025
InfraMot, Fear Conditioning System, Startle Response, Morris Water Maze, Light / Dark, Open Field

Increased depressive behaviour in mice harboring the mutant thyroid hormone receptor alpha 1

Pilhatsch M, Winter C, Nordström K, Vennström B, Bauer M, Juckel G
Behav Brain Res 2010; 214:187-92
VideoMot, Active Avoidance, Passive Avoidance, Startle Response

Prolonged and site-specific over-expression of corticotropin-releasing factor reveals differential roles for extended amygdala nuclei in emotional regulation

Regev L, Neufeld-Cohen A, Tsoory M, Kuperman Y, Getselter D, Gil S, Chen A
Mol Psychiatry 2010; 16:714-728
VideoMot, Startle Response, Fear Conditioning System, InfraMot



Modulation of the Ca2+ conductance of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by Lypd6

Darvas M, Morsch M, Racz I, Ahmadi S, Swandulla D, Zimmer A
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2009; 19(9):670-81
VideoMot, InfraMot, Startle Response

Neurobevavioural functions in adult progeny of rat mothers exposed to methylmercury OR 2,2´, 4,4´, 5,5´-hexachlorbiphenyl (PCB 153) alone or theis combination during gestation and lactation

Gralewicz S, Wiaderna D, Lutz P, Sitarek K
Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2009; 22(3):277-91
Startle Response

Effect of „enriched environment” during development on adult rat behavior and response to the dopamine receptor agonist adomorphine

Hoffmann LC, Schütte SRM, Koch M, Schwabe K
Neuroscience 2009; 158:1589-98
ActiMot, Startle Response

Wfs1-deficient mice display impaired behavioural adaption in stressful environment

Luuk H, Plaas M, Raud S, Innos J, Sütt S, Lasner H, Abramov U, Kurrikoff K, Köks S, Vasar E
Behav Brain Res 2009; 198(2):334-45
Active Avoidance, Passive Avoidance, Tail-Flick, Startle Response, Fear Conditioning System, Morris Water Maze



Phenotypic differences in behavior, physiology and neurochemistry between rats selected for tameness and for defensive aggression towards humans

Albert FW, Shchepina O, Winter C, Römpler H, Teupser D, Palme R, Ceglarek U, Kratzsch J, Sohr R, Trut LN, Thiery J, Morgenstern R, Plyusnina IZ, Schöneberg T, Pääbo S
Horm Behav 2008; 53(3):413-21
ActiMot, Startle Response

A common genetic predisposition to stress sensitivity and stress-induced nicotine craving

Bilkei-Gorzo A, Rácz I, Michel K, Darvas M, Maldonado R, Zimmer A
Biol Psychiatry 2008; 63(2):164-71
VideoMot, ActiMot, Startle Response, Operant Behavior System

Control of hormonal stress reactivity by the endogenous opioid system

lkei-Gorzo A, Racz I, Michel K, Mauer D, Zimmer A, Klingmüller D, Zimmer A
Psychoneuroendocrinology 2008; 33(4):425-36
VideoMot, ActiMot, Startle Response

Effects of repeated dizocilpine treatment on adult rat behavior after neonatal lesions of the entorhinal cortex

Harich S, Koch, M, Schwabe K
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2008; 32:816-27
ActiMot, Startle Response

SK3 K+ channel-deficient mice have enhanced dopamine and serotonin release and altered emotional behaviors

Jacobsen JPR, Weikop P, Hansen HH, Mikkelsen JD, Redrobe JP, Holst D, Bond CT, Adelman JP, Christophersen P, Mirza NR
Genes Brain Behav 2008; 7:836-48
ActiMot, Startle Response

Reduced social interaction and ultrasonic communication in a mouse model of monogenic heritable autism

Jamain S, Radyushkin K, Hammerschmidt K, Granon S, Boretius S, Varoqueaux F, Ramanantsoa N, Gallego J, Ronnenberg A, Winter D, Frahm J, Fischer J, Bourgeron T, Ehrenreich H, Brose N
PNAS 2008; 105:1710-5
Fear Conditioning System, Startle Response

Neuronal functions, feeding behavior, and energy balance in Slc2a3+/- mice

Schmidt S, Richter M, Montag D, Sartorius T, Gawlik V, Hennige AM, Scherneck S, Himmelbauer H, Lutz SZ, Augustin R, Kluge R, Ruth P, Joost HG, Schürmann A
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2008; 295(5):E1084-94
VideoMot, Startle Response, RotaRod, Grip Strength Meter, Active Avoidance, Drinking / Feeding, InfraMot, Running Wheel

Low tryptophan diet increases stress-sensitivity, but does not affect habituation in rats

Tanke MAC, Alserda E, Doornbos B, van der Most PJ, Goeman K, Postema F, Korf J
Neurochem Int 2008; 52:272-81
Startle Response



Deficient prepulse inhibition induced by selective breeding of rats can be restored by the dopamine D2 antagonist haloperidol

Hadamitzky M, Harich S, Koch M, Schwabe K
Behav Brain Res 2007; 177:364-7
Startle Response

Mobile phone radiation and the developing brain: behavioral and morphological effects in juvenile rats

Kumlin T, Iivonen H, Miettinen P, Juvonen A, von Groen T, Puranen L, Pitkäaho R, Juutilainen J, Tanila H
Radiation Research 2007; 168:471-9
Startle Response



Nicotine and clozapine selectively reverse a PCP-induced deficit of PPI in BALB/cByJ but not NMRI mice: Comparison with risperidone

Andreasen JT, Andersen KK, Nielsen EO, Mathiasen L, Mirza NR
Behav Brain Res 2006; 167(1):118-127
Startle Response

Subchronic administration of LY354740 does not modify ketamine-evoked behavior and neuronal activity in rats

Imre G, Fokkema DS, Ter Horst GJ
Eur J Pharmacol 2006; 544:77-81
Startle Response

Dose-response characteristics of ketamine effect on locomotion, cognitive function and central neuronal activity

Imre G, Fokkema DS, Den Boer JA, Ter Horst GJ
Brain Res Bull 2006; 69:338-45
Startle Response

Effects of the mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 on ketamine-evoked behaviours and neurochemical changes in the dentate gyrus of the rat

Imre G, Salomons A, Jongsma M, Fokkema DS, Den Boer JA, Ter Horst GJ
Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2006; 84:392-9
Startle Response

Global brain atrophy after unilateral parietal lesion and its prevention by erythropoietin

Siren AL, Radyushkin K, Boretius S, Kammer D, Riechers CC, Natt O, Sargin D, Watanabe T, Sperling S, Michaelis T, Price J, Meyer B, Frahm J, Ehrenreich H
Brain 2006; 129:480-9
VideoMot, Startle Response, Fear Conditioning System



Neurexophilin 3 is highly localized in cortical and cerebellar regions and is functionally important for sensorimotor gating and motor coordination

Beglopoulos V, Montag-Sallaz M, Rohlmann A, Piechotta K, Ahmad M, Montag D, Missler M
Mol Cell Biol 2005; 25(16):7278-88
Active Avoidance, Grip Strength Meter, RotaRod, VideoMot, Startle Response

Role of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus in sensorimotor gating and reward-related behavior in rats

Diederich K, Koch M
Psychopharmacology 2005; 179:402-8
Startle Response, Operant Behavior System, ActiMot

Behavioral and morphological alterations following neonatal excitotoxic lesions of the medial prefrontal cortex in rats

Schneider M, Koch M
Exp Neurol 2005; 195:185-98
ActiMot, Operant Behavior System, Stereotaxic Instruments, Startle Response

Behavioral effects in adult rats of chronic prepubertal treatment with the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2

Schneider M, Drews E, Koch M
Behav Pharmacol 2005; 16:447-53
ActiMot, Operant Behavior System, Startle Response



Behavioral phenotype of pre-proenkephalin-deficient mice on diverse congenic backgrounds

Bilkei-Gorzo A, Racz I, Michel K, Zimmer A, Klingmuller D, Zimmer A
Psychopharmacology 2004; 176:343-52
Startle Response,VideoMot, ActiMot

Impairment of sensorimotor gating in mice deficient in the cell adhesion molecule L1 or its close homologue, CHL1

Irintchev A, Koch M, Needham LK, Maness P, Schachner M
Brain Res 2004; 1029:131-4
Startle Response

Effects of neonatal lesions of the medial prefrontal cortex on adult rat behaviour

Schwabe K, Enkel T, Klein S, Schütte M, Koch M
Behav Brain Res 2004; 153:21-34
ActiMot, Startle Response



Chronic pubertal, but not adult chronic cannabinoid treatment impairs sensorimotor gating, recognition memory, and the performance in a progressive ratio task in adult rats

Schneider M, Koch M
Neuropsychopharmacology 2003; 28:1760-9
Startle Response, Operant Behavior System, ActiMot



The cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 reduces sensorimotor gating and recognition memory in rats

Schneider M, Koch M
Behav Pharmacol 2002; 13:29-37
Startle Response, Operant Behavior System
PhenoMaster / LabMaster (Drinking / Feeding, Activity), RotaRod, Startle Response



  • Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz



  • Abbott GmbH & Co. KG, Ludwigshafen
  • Altana Pharma AG, Barsbüttel
  • Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co. KG, Biberach
  • Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin
  • Deutsches Primatenzentrum GmbH - DPZ, Göttingen
  • European Neuroscience Institute - ENI, Göttingen
  • Fraunhofer Institut für Toxikologie & Exp. Medizin, Hannover
  • Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen
  • Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Göttingen
  • Leibniz-Institut für Neurobiologie, Magdeburg
  • Max-Planck-Institut für Experimentelle Medizin Göttingen
  • Max-Planck-Institut für Hirnforschung Frankfurt
  • Medizinische Hochschule Hannover - MHH, Hannover
  • Merck KGaA, Darmstadt
  • Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg, Magdeburg
  • Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität, Bonn
  • Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum
  • Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbH, Frankfurt am Main
  • Universität Bielefeld, Bielefeld



  • Universite de Geneve, Geneve


The Netherlands

  • Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Groningen



  • NeuroSearch A/S, Ballerup


Great Britain

  • Organon Laboratories Ltd., Motherwell, Lanarkshire
  • SafePharm Laboratories Ltd., Derby



  • Orion Cooperation - Orion Pharma, Turku
  • University of Kuopio, Kuopio



  • Italian Institute for Technology - IIT, Genova



  • EGIS Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Budapest



  • Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Novosibirsk



  • Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot



  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC



  • Suven Life Sciences Limited, Hyderabad